The use of high dilutions are in vogue since inception of homeopathy, when Christian Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathic system of medicine, began experimentation with various substances, of different origins, diluted and applied for therapeutic response (drug proving) and clinical conditions (simile principle). The effects of high dilutions have been repeatedly verified in various laboratory models, as well as in clinical practice. In addition to homeopathy, high dilutions are also applied in isopathy, iso-endopathy, veterinary, dentistry and agronomy etc. The basic and fundamental research is undertaken to understand basic tenets of homeopathy, and to accept (or reject) the plausibility of homeopathy. A substantive work has been done in this area by Indian scientists over past few decades. India has a history of more than five decades of organized research, which is reflected by publications as early as 1960s. This paper aims to provide a glimpse of work done by Indian scientists in fundamental, basic and allied aspects of high dilution, by referring publications from 1969 till date.
he biomedical community remains critically skeptic to the therapeutic action of homeopathic medicines, which are highly diluted. Such high dilutions are the preferred target of critics, as above Avogadro’s limit it is assumed that no molecules remain in a solution. The term high dilution is a relative term used for any substance subjected to serial dilution and rigorous agitation/shaking (potentization), as in preparation of homeopathic medicines. High dilution term is also comparable to terms like ultra-high dilutions (UHD), super dilutions, ultra dilutions etc.
The use of high dilutions are in vogue since inception of homeopathy, when Christian Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathic system of medicine, began experimentation with various substances of different origins, diluted and applied for therapeutic response (drug proving). He soon realized that these substances in diluted form may be applied to similar clinical conditions (simile principle). This is how homeopathic system of medicine came into existence. Since then, use of high dilutions have gone beyond clinical use. With the increasing curiosities, constant skepticism and clinical efficacy, there has been a constant demand to study the nature and action of high dilutions and homeopathy. The research in high dilution is also warranted due to clinical success stories; increasing consumption of homeopathic products; lack of standardization in prescription, preparation and dissemination of medicines etc. The fundamental questions still revolves around the mode of action of homeopathic medicines and nature of the ultra-high dilutions.
While high dilutions defy the dose-response relationship, the clinical experiences of homeopaths indicate that the more diluted and agitated the drugs, the more thorough and refined their effects. The effects of high dilutions have been repeatedly verified in various laboratory models, as well as in clinical practice. Apart from researches, many authorities and Nobel Laureates have supported plausibility of high dilutions and homeopathy. In an interview to journal “Science”, Luc Montagnier quoted that, “What I can say now is that the high dilutions are right. High dilutions of something are not nothing. They are water structures which mimic the original molecules” In response to an article published in journal “New Scientist”, expressing skepticism about homoeopathy (October 18, 1997 and December 9, 2006), Nobel Laureate Brian Josephson expressed, “The phenomenon known as the ‘memory of water’ has been established experimentally by Jacques Benveniste and others. Its validity surpasses the importance of homeopathy itself and illustrates the narrow mindedness of the modern scientific community, which, instead of testing these claims, rejects them beforehand”
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