Potentized 'biological ligands'- heralding a new revolution in homeopathy and modern molecular medicine by Chandran KC
Once modern biochemistry advances to such a stage of perfection that the molecular pathology and biochemical mechanisms of all diseases are explored and revealed to the homeopaths, and pharmaceutical chemistry advances to such a stage that the molecular structure and biological actions of all drug substances are clearly known, homeopathic practice will gradually evolve from present ‘symptom-based’ and ‘evidence-based’ practice into ‘science-based’ and ‘knowledge-based’ practice. I know, such an evolution will be a gradual, very slow and long- term process. At that stage, homeopathy will be universally recognized as an advanced branch of modern molecular medicine, and rightfully designated as Molecular Imprints Therapeutics.
MIT opens up enormous scope of potentized forms of various biological ligands as powerful therapeutic agents that could be used in different kinds of acute and chronic diseases. Many diseases are caused by blocking of biological receptors by exogenous and endogenous pathogenic molecules. If we could remove those pathological blocks of receptors using appropriate molecular imprints of biological ligands such as hormones, metabolites, signalling molecules, neurotransmitters, cytokines etc, that would herald a great revolution in whole medical science and pharmaceutical research. I hope policy makers and people of authority would listen to this point, for the benefit of humanity.
For example, let us see how INSULIN 30 acts in certain cases of Type 2 Diabetes:
According to my view, molecular imprints of insulin will have conformational affinity to any pathogenic molecule that can bind to insulin receptors. As such, molecular imprints contained in insulin 30 can act as specific binding sites for pathogenic molecules that inhibit insulin receptors. By this action, insulin receptors are relieved of their inhibitions, thereby facilitating the normal interaction between insulin and insulin receptors. Positive effects of insulin 30 in type 2 diabetes could be rationally explained by this model. That means, insulin 30 will be effective only in cases where insulin production is not completely hindered, where diabetes is caused by inhibition of insulin receptors by some exogenous or endogenous pathogenic molecules.
We already know that most of the diseases are caused by endogenous or exogenous pathogenic molecules binding to various essential biological molecules such as enzymes and receptors, and inhibiting their normal functioning.
When biological molecules are inhibited, they are prevented from interacting with their natural ligands, where as such interactions are essential for normal vital processes.Pathogenic molecules block the biological molecules by binding to the binding sites or active sites. This happens when the functional groups of pathogenic molecules are similar in conformation to those of natural ligands.
From homeopathic point of view, it is obvious that natural ligands of biological molecules will be the most appropriate similimum for the pathogenic molecules that may inhibit those biological molecules. That means, molecular imprints of biological ligands will be capable of binding to the pathogenic molecules that may attack those biological molecules. As such, it is possible that potentized biological ligands could be used as powerful therapeutic agents in various kinds of diseases.
This understanding opens up possibilities of developing a whole new range of novel potentized homeopathic drugs from BIOLOGICAL LIGANDS, that could be used as specific therapeutic agents on the basis of advanced knowledge of biochemistry and molecular pathology.
Here I am for the first time introducing an idea of revolutionary dimensions, not only for homeopathy, but for whole medical science and pharmaceutical industry.
Potentized BIOLOGICAL LIGANDS will be a great leap in establishing homeopathy as a part of modern medical science. It will also make homeopathic prescriptions morespecific.WHAT ARE BIOLOGICAL LIGANDS?
Understanding LIGANDS is very important in studying the biological mechanism of homeopathic drug action as proposed by the scientific explanation of homeopathy proposed by MIT.In biochemistry and pharmacology, a LIGAND is a substance- a small molecule- that forms a complex by binding with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, ligand usually is a signal triggering molecule, binding to a site on a target protein. In DNA-ligand binding studies, ligand is usually any small molecule or ion, or even a protein that binds to the DNA double helix.
The binding occurs by intermolecular forces, such as ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. The docking (association) is usually reversible (dissociation). Actual irreversible covalent bonding between a ligand and its target molecule is rare in biological systems. In contrast to the meaning in metalorganic and inorganic chemistry, it is irrelevant whether the ligand actually binds at a metal site, as is the case in hemoglobin.
Ligand binding to a receptor (receptor protein) alters its chemical conformation (three dimensional shape). The conformational state of a receptor protein determines its functional state. Ligands include substrates, inhibitors, activators, and neurotransmitters. The tendency or strength of binding is called affinity. Binding affinity is determined not only by direct interactions, but also by solvent effects that can play a dominant indirect role in driving non-covalent binding in solution.
Radioligands are radioisotope labeled compounds are used in vivo as tracers in PET studies and for in vitro binding studies.The interaction of most ligands with their binding sites can be characterized in terms of a binding affinity. In general, high-affinity ligand binding results from greater intermolecular force between the ligand and its receptor while low-affinity ligand binding involves less intermolecular force between the ligand and its receptor.
In general, high-affinity binding involves a longer residence time for the ligand at its receptor binding site than is the case for low-affinity binding. High-affinity binding of ligands to receptors is often physiologically important when some of the binding energy can be used to cause a conformational change in the receptor, resulting in altered behavior of an associated ion channel or enzyme.
A ligand that can bind to a receptor, alter the function of the receptor and trigger a physiological response is called an agonist for that receptor. Agonist binding to a receptor can be characterized both in terms of how much physiological response can be triggered and in terms of the concentration of the agonist that is required to produce the physiological response. High-affinity ligand binding implies that a relatively low concentration of a ligand is adequate to maximally occupy a ligand-binding site and trigger a physiological response.
Various pathogenic molecules and drug molecules work by binding and blocking upon the biological molecules, thereby preventing the normal interactions between biological molecules and their natural ligands. LIGANDS that facilitate biological actions are called ‘agonists’, andthose inhibiting biological actions are called ‘antagonists’.
LIGANDS are also called as ‘inhibitors’ and ‘activators’ according to the roles they play.
ANY endogenous or exogenous molecule may be considered a LIGAND, if it can bind to a biological molecule and modify its action.
By BIOLOGICAL LIGANDS, we refer to various endogenous molecules and ions that play essential roles in normal biological processes by acting upon biological molecules. Cytokines, signalling molecules, prostaglandins, hormones, neuromediators, co-factors, vitamins, neurotransmitters, free radicals— list of biological ligands will be very exhaustive