Mechanism of biological action(s) of the potentized homeopathic remedies can be scientifically explained through a working hypothesis
One of the main reasons for the lack of acceptance of homeopathy as a scientific mode of treatment is the absence of a clear understanding of its mechanism of action, particularly of the ultra-high diluted potentized remedies. At the present state of our knowledge, the mechanism of action of the potentized homeopathic remedies diluted beyond Avogadro's limit is extremely difficult to understand and explain. But here is a working hypothesis that can throw light on the possible mechanism of biological action of the potentized homeopathic remedies with concrete supportive evidences. In the beginning, let me focus on the intricacies that come in the way of a scientific explanation of the mechanism of action of the homeopathic remedies, particularly those diluted above the Avogadro's limit. Firstly, to understand the mechanism of action of the potentized homeopathic drugs, one has to satisfactorily answer the problem of how the medicinal property of the original drug substance can be transferred to and retained by the ethanolic vehicle. Several working hypotheses have been proposed in this aspect (Anaganostatos et al., 1998; Allegre et al., 1989; Bellavite and Signorini, 2002; Elia and Niccoli 1999; Lo, 1996; Anick and Ives, 2007; Rey et al., 2007). The leading current proposal for the mode of action of such "ultra molecular" dilutions is that water (and aquatic ethanol as well) is capable of storing information relating to substances with which it has been in contact and subsequently can transmit this information to pre-sensitized biological system. The process is believed to be mediated by structural modification of water (or the aquatic ethanol, the "vehicle" of the homeopathic remedies), analogous to storage of information by magnetic media. Such information is retained in physical, rather than chemical form (Bellavite and Signorini, 2002). Several aspects of the "water structure" and "memory of water" have been critically analyzed recently by Chaplin (2007). Results of studies conducted on nature of molecular clustering in water solutions showed that as a solution is made more and more dilute, larger and very stable aggregates develop (Samal and Geckeler, 2001). This would mean that residual molecular clusters of the original substance may be present in homeopathic dilutions. Interestingly, alcohol also forms clusters with water (Wisnieski et al., 2001), which would further support the homeopathic analogy.Being an associative liquid, that is having hydrogen bonds between molecules, it is thus possible that alcohol can form its very own clusters. In fact, the presence of alcohol in water may actually be favorable for the moderation of succussion energy (by increasing vapor pressure). Andersson et al (1997) and Markovic et al (1999) were able to create individual clusters, using sudden evaporative cooling. According to these authors, cluster mixtures can generate many different isomeric forms in different geometric forms, and each isomer can represent a unique bit of information. Thus it is possible that millions of different "information bits" can be produced which may be "biologically active". Hameroff and Penrose (2001) have proposed that microtubules in our brain are the seat of our conscious mind and consist of quantum micro switches (protein qubits), which contain "pure" ordered water. The microtubules interconnect every cell in a multicellular organism possibly being the means to extend the brain's consciousness throughout the entire body. These authors further suggest that this microtubule network can explain the mind-body interactions, such as psycho-somatic pain. There are many research articles that suggest the role of cell cytoskeleton in genome regulation in cancer. Further there are evidences that support the fact that internal microtubules of the cell control mitosis (cell division), regulate the genes, decide which gene to turn on and so forth not only in terms of differentiation in development but also in health and in the steady-state. They believe that consciousness, the microtubules and quantum coherence play an essential role in health and diseases. Thus, in fine, the water cluster model and microtubule network model are comparable with Hahnemann's concept of vital force in which a biological network offers all the action/reaction properties. Additionally, Hameroff's (2001) work suggests that the quantum state of the microtubule's elemental building block can be altered by an 'ordered' water structure attached to the external side of the microtubules. The water cluster(s), which is (are) specific to the problems, can simply throw the right switch or switches to correct the error in the network. Thus molecular architecture of water has a key role to play in understanding homeopathic mechanism of action and has therefore been vigorously studied (Dantas et al., 2007; Elia et al., 2007; Anick and Ives (2007).