CHIKUNGUNYA:[Chick-en-GUN-yah] also called CHIKUNGUNYA virus disease ,Spread by the bite of infected mosquitoes. “CHIKUNGUNYA” means “that which contorts or bends up” for “stooped walk,” or “that which bends up” depending on who you believe, referring to the posture of a person suffering from the disease).The disease resembles Dengue fever,Characterized by severe persistent joint pains (Arthritis), fever rash. It is rarely life threatening.CHIKUNGUNYA occurs in Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, Found in Urban Areas.It is Caused by CHIKUNGUNYA virus.Classified in the family Togaviridae. Genius Alphavirus..
CHIKUNGUNYA is spread by the bite of an Aedes mosquito,Primarily Aedes mosquito.,Humans are the major source or reservoir.Mosquito transmits the disease by biting an infected person and then biting someone else.An infected person cannot spread the infection directly to other persons. Aedes mosquito bites during the day time.It occurs mainly in Africa, India and Southeast Asia. The Aedes mosquito breed in manmade containers which collect rainwater include discarded tires, flowerpots, old oil drums, animal water troughs, water storage vessels and plastic containers in places where there is lack of public health infrastructure.
Epidemiology:In the South-East Asia Region, Chikungunya virus is maintained in the human population by a human mosquito- human transmission cycle,A high vector density as seen in the post monsoon season accentuates the transmission. Its an emerging epidemic in India, currently spread into many districts of andhra pradesh and maharashtra and karnataka affecting thousands of people each day.Its falsly called as chicken gunya or chickengunya.. but it has no correlation with chickens. The confusion was created as the infection came simultaneusly withg bird flue in India. The first recognized outbreak of CHIKUNGUNYA occurred in East Africa in 1952-53.Soon thereafter epidemics were noted in the Philippines in 1954,1954 and 1968.
Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, India, Burma,Srilanka-2003
What are the symptoms of CHIKUNGUNYA?: The symptoms of chikungunya include fever which can reach 39°C, (102.2 °F) a petechial or maculopapular rash usually involving the limbs and trunk, and arthralgia or arthritis affecting multiple joints which can be debilitating. There can also be headache, conjunctival injection and slight photophobia.Starts suddenly with fever, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, joint pains, and rash with the severe joint pains (Arthritis) is the most common feature of the disease.Infection causes no symptoms, especially in children recovery from CHIKUNGUNYA is the expected outcome. Convalescence can be prolonged up to a year or more.Its also called as aakdya (stiffness) and maakdya (ape gait), in local languages in India.Infection appears to confer lasting immunity.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: CHIK virus causes a febrile illness in the majority of people with an incubation period of 2-4 days from the mosquito bite. Chikungunya virus is highly infective and disabling but is not transmissible between people.Viraemia persists for upto 5 days from clinical onset. After the incubation period there is a sudden onset of flu-like symptoms including a severe headache, chills, fever (>40°C,104°F), joint pain, nausea and vomiting. The joints of the extremities in particular become swollen and painful to the touch. A rash may sometimes occur. Hemorrhage is rare and all but a few patients recover within 3-5 days. Some can suffer for joint pain for months. Children may display neurological symptoms.
Commonest presenting features:
Fever usually associated with,Arthralgia , Backache and Headache .
Clinical features in Chikungunya fever:
1.Fever,2.Arthalgia, 3.Backache, 4.Headache
1. Rash, 2. Stomatitis, 3. Oral Ulcers, 4. Hyperpigmention
5. Exfoliative Dermatitis
How soon after exposure do symptoms appear?
The time between the bite of a mosquito carrying CHIKUNGUNYA virus and the start of symptom ranges from 1-12days
How is CHIKUNGUNYA Diagnosed?
By blood tests.
Clinical appearance of both CHIKUNGUNYA and DENGUE are similar.
Laboratory confirmation is important especially in areas where dengue is present.
Virus Isolation: Cell culture
Virus isolation: Mosquito inoculation
Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever, Eruptive Fevers like Measles
Other Viral Fevers, SINDBIS Virus
Epidemic Polyarthritis (ROSS RIVER Virus Infection)
Who is at risk for CHIKUNGUNYA?
Anyone who is bitten by an infected mosquito can get CHIKUNGUNYA.
Avoiding Mosquito bite, in areas where CHIKUNGUNYA virus may be present. Eliminating Mosquito breeding sites.Medicinal prevention-done by Homoeopathic medicines The CHIKUNGUNYA virus vaccine is no longer being produced. Prevention, centers on avoiding mosquito bites where CHIKUNGUNYA spread.Eliminating mosquito breeding sites. Use bed nets if sleeping in areas.When outdoors wear long sleeved shirts and pants. Use mosquito repellants. Have secure screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out.
Treatment for CHIKUNGUNYA?
There is no specific treatment for Chikungunya. The illness is usually self-limiting and will resolve with time. No deaths, neuroinvasive cases, or hemorrhagic cases related to CHIKV infection have been conclusively documented in the scientific literature. Symptomatic treatment is recommended after excluding other more dangerous diseases.Symptomatic treatment by Homoeopathic medicines. Rest and fluids may be beneficial. Infected person may be isolated from mosquitoes in as much as possible in order to avoid transmission on infection to other people. Supportive care with rest is indicated during the acute joint symptoms. Movement and mild exercise tend to improve stiffness and morning Arthralgia, but heavy exercise may exacerbate rheumatic symptoms. CHIKV infection is thought to confer life-long immunity.
Homoeopathic Approach: It offers both preventive and curative medicines for Chikungunya.
Homoeo medicines improve the disease resisting capacity of the body and in vitality.
Homoeopathy treatment is not in accordance with the nosological term but with the symptoms presented by the individual.
“We Treat the Diseased Individual not the disease in an individual”
We give medicine to who is suffering, rather than what he is suffering. Homoeopathic Science at the very inception, has been devised to treat the individual in diseases.
Gelsemium, Rhustox, Eupatorium perfoliatum Bryonia alba, Ars alb, Aconite
Dr. Ashok kumar Dantkale
MD(Hom), Assistant Professor
Govt. Homoeo Medical College &Hospital
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